John Baldwin is a national leader in health care policy and clinical practice re-design and a scientist, whose broad interests include re-alignment of economic incentives to reward evidence-based decision making and thus improving outcomes, reducing costs, and generating revenue that can improve access for the uninsured. He has advised Presidents Clinton and Obama on health policy. A former dean of Dartmouth Medical School, he brought the former Center for Evaluative Clinical Science within the medical school and promoted its development into the Dartmouth Health Care Policy Institute. Recently, he has worked with Texas Republican Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst on re-alignment of reimbursement to reduce costs and improve outcomes in Texas Medicaid, and this work resulted in Texas Senate Bills 7 and 8, in consideration for this session and largely written by Dr. Baldwin. An active clinician, Baldwin's interest in health reform and economics has pervaded his career. He has led large physician groups as a department chair, a dean, and in his current roles. He has written extensively in the lay press and spoken in many public venues as an advocate for meaningful health care reform. His interests in improving the quality of American health care are broad, as evidenced by his recent selection by the CDC to chair a national session in June, 2011 on reduction in outpatient infection transmission. In 2012, Dr. Baldwin was appointed (four year term) by the President of the United States and the Secretary of Defense to the U.S. Defense Health Board, which oversees all military health care in the country.
He is Advisor for Health Affairs to the Texas Tech University System and tenured Professor of Medicine and of Surgery at the medical school, where he oversees clinical, education, and accreditation issues for the university. The System has eight academic campuses and six colleges, with 7000 faculty and staff and a budget of $1.7bn. His interest in physician leadership and health reform has transcended his clinical work in the Texas Tech System and recently (2010) resulted in his receiving a grant from the Monell Foundation to test the hypothesis that evidence-based decision-making in outpatient clinics results in better patient outcomes and lower costs.
Baldwin has substantial and diverse business and consulting experience in biotechnology and bioengineering, intellectual property, technology transfer, pharmaceutical and device company start-ups, health insurance, banking, and non-profit organizations. Baldwin has also been one of the most successful fundraisers in recent history at his current university, at Harvard, at Dartmouth, and for many charitable organizations.
Dr. Baldwin was named Presidential Fellow at the Salzburg Seminar in Austria in 2002 and led discussion groups and lectured there on the origin and utility of current concepts of human rights and health care. He described this work in the International Herald Tribune. In the past two years, Baldwin has published in The New Yorker and The New York Times, USA Today, the Washington Post and numerous other national journals on the topics of health care reform, economics, human rights, and other areas. He was elected to a six year term and served as Vice-Chairman of the Board of Overseers (the senior governing body) of Harvard University. Academically, his interests and work span the arts and humanities, as well as the sciences.
In the business arena, Baldwin serves and has served for a number of years as a corporate director of several publicly-traded companies in energy, banking, diagnostics, and other areas. He is a member of the board of directors of Quest Diagnostics (NYSE:DGX) and serves on its audit committee. He is also currently a corporate board member and serves on the audit committee of the Houston Trust Company. Baldwin is President and Chairman of the Board of privately-held Slater-Baldwin Farms (Slater Creek, Inc.) in Collin County, Texas, an operating farm designated as a Heritage Trust Farm by the State of Texas, with more than 160 years of continuous operation by a single family. Baldwin has completed board governance and audit programs at both Stanford Law School and Harvard School of Business.
Baldwin has served on scientific advisory boards for Quintiles, Baxter, Novacor, Arsenal Biomedical, Houston Advanced Research Corporation (HARC) of Devon Energy, Alcyone, and several other successful start-ups. He is a graduate of both the Harvard School of Public Health Program for Chiefs of Programs and the Stanford University Law School Program for directors and officers of publicly-held companies. Baldwin serves as medical director of FluidNet, a privately-held company in New Hampshire, and served on the board of Alexion Pharmaceuticals. He is a Special Commissioner in the State of Texas on matters related to real estate. Appointed by the Governor of Texas, he also serves as a member of the state's Select Commission on Higher Education.
His background involves experience in federally-funded, state-funded, and privately funded scientific research, and he has been instrumental in launching several pharmaceutical companies and device companies (such as Alexion Pharmaceuticals and Novacor [acquired by Baxter]) and has served on many other scientific advisory boards and corporate boards, in the life sciences, banking, and agriculture. Dr. Baldwin has had extensive experience with the FDA, the NIH (both as a funded investigator and peer reviewer), and clinical payers, including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance companies.
Background and Experience:
Following education in the Texas public school system, John Baldwin attended Harvard College. He was among twelve students from the junior year to be elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received the Wendell Scholarship, awarded to the outstanding student of the freshman class, the John Harvard Scholarship, and the Detur Prize. As an undergraduate at Harvard, Baldwin worked as a computer programmer and research assistant under Professor Jean Hiernaux, at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Later, while still a Harvard undergraduate, Baldwin conducted research in the area of computer-generated mathematical models for elucidating the relationship between genetic and environmental factors in child growth and development based upon data he collected in East Africa. While he had extensive experience related to health and human rights issues in Uganda, his formal research involved surveying the nutritional and growth status of children in rural Uganda, under the auspices of the Ugandan government with grant support from the National Science Foundation. Under the mentorship of Professors William White Howells and Albert Damon, Baldwin earned the Bachelor of Arts degree summa cum laude in Anthropology from Harvard University.
Upon graduation from Harvard, he was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship and studied under Hugh Sinclair at Oxford, where he remains closely involved in programs to advance science at Oxford. Returning from England, Baldwin received his medical training at Stanford, where he received his M.D. and the Alumni Scholar Award of the Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Baldwin then completed internship and residency training in both internal medicine and surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. During that time, he was also appointed as a Fellow at Harvard Medical School. Subsequently, Dr. Baldwin returned to Stanford University for specialized training in cardiothoracic and transplantation surgery. He is certified by the National Board of Medical Examiners, the American Board of Internal Medicine, the American Board of Surgery, and the American Board of Thoracic Surgery.
Dr. Baldwin was invited to join the faculty of Stanford University in 1984 upon completion of his cardiothoracic surgical training there and was later appointed head of the heart/lung transplantation program and director of the cardiovascular surgery research laboratories at Stanford. With funding from the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Baldwin's research team developed the currently-used method for preservation of lung tissue for transplantation, and he performed the first successful human transplantation of lung tissue procured at long distance in 1986. In 1988, Dr. Baldwin was appointed Professor and Chief of the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Yale University, where he built a large clinical program in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. His clinical and research groups at Yale made seminal contributions in cardiovascular physiology, heart and lung transplantation, anti-rejection drugs, heart assist devices, and cell biology-based techniques for sub-zero tissue preservation, as well as understanding of placental immunology. He also performed the first successful lung transplant done on the East Coast, with 21 year survival of the patient.
In 1994, Dr. Baldwin was chosen to succeed Dr. Michael DeBakey as head of surgical programs at Baylor College of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals in Houston, Texas. Dr. Baldwin held the DeBakey Chair of Surgery and the Chairmanship of the Department of Surgery at Baylor College of Medicine and was Chief of Surgical Services at The Methodist Hospital, the largest private hospital in the world and Chief of Surgical Services at the Ben Taub Hospital, and Chief at the Houston Veterans Administration Hospital. Dr. Baldwin and his team performed the first successful cardiac "auto-transplant," removing the heart of a boy with an intra-cardiac tumor, removing the cancer, and successfully re-transplanting the heart.
Baldwin served as Dean of Dartmouth Medical School and Associate Provost of the university from 1998 until 2005. Baldwin led Dartmouth Medical School in achieving the greatest growth in its history, with a doubling of the endowment, more than doubling of its extra-mural research funding from the NIH. Dr. Baldwin oversaw sixteen academic departments, with approximately 2,000 faculty members. He supported and organized the health policy initiatives at Dartmouth that became the Dartmouth Center for Health Policy and maintained his active clinical practice. He taught seven years in undergraduate programs at Dartmouth College, in the humanities and sciences and on health reform. He has written extensively in the lay press on issues related to health care reform and public education. While at Dartmouth, Dr. Baldwin also spent a sabbatical year at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government as the Malcolm Weiner Fellow in Social Policy, studying the economics of the medically uninsured.
At Texas Tech University, President Baldwin has emphasized strengthened scholarship across the six colleges of the Health Sciences University, with a pervasive emphasis on inter-professional teamwork in pursuit of wellness and optimal disease management. He has recruited more than 200 new faculty members to Texas Tech. In particular, he has recruited 106 new distinguished faculty members to the new four year medical school in El Paso, the accreditation of which he supervised in early 2008. This was, at the time, the first new four year medical school in the United States in 35 years. He also established a new School of Nursing in El Paso and has worked to improve broad academic relations with the University of Texas at El Paso and the broad El Paso community, with particular emphasis on improving quality of life and access to services for Hispanic people. He has more than doubled NIH funding at the university and overseen accreditation of all the colleges and of the university.
The author of more than 400 peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Baldwin has been invited to give more than 370 lectures on a wide variety of topics around the world and has served as a visiting professor at more than 50 universities. He serves on the editorial board of numerous scientific journals. He has been editor and author of many textbooks published in America and around the world.
Dr. Baldwin has received numerous professional and civic awards, including the Certificate of Appreciation for Outstanding Service of the American Heart Association, the Gold Medal of the Gothenburg (Sweden) Society, the Medaille de la Ville de Bordeaux of the French Academy, the Traveling Lectureship Award of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Australia and New Zealand Chapter of the American College of Surgeons Traveling Fellowship Award, and The Master Teacher Award from Cardiovascular Reviews. In 2002, John Baldwin received the highest civilian award given by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the Veterans' National Commendation, for his commitment and long service in improving the conditions for U.S. veterans. In 2006, he received the "Make Gentle the Life of the World Award" from the Robert F. Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. In 2009, Baldwin was named the "Outstanding Professor for Students" of the Mortar Board Society, for particular recognition of his "teaching, excellent advising and mentoring of Texas Tech University students."
Dr. Baldwin has held leadership positions in many national societies. From 1991 through 1997, he served as Governor of the American College of Surgeons and, in1999, Dr. Baldwin was elected President of the International Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons. In 1997, Dr. Baldwin was invited to chair the national educational program of the American College of Surgeons.
Baldwin has numerous civic commitments and serves on the boards of a number of national non-profit institutions, including the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial in Washington, D. C. He also serves on the Boston-based Albert Schweitzer Fellowship (1993-present), serving medically needy people throughout the world through its fellowship and direct aid programs. He was the founder of the Albert Schweitzer Fellowship for the study of Ethics in Animal Research. He has served on the national board of directors of the United Network for Organ Sharing, where he dealt with many issues involving the interaction of public policy, science, and ethics. He also served for four years as a member of the Ethics Committee of The Methodist Hospital in Houston, the largest private, non-profit hospital in the world. He is an active member of the American Friends of Magdalen College, the Oxford Society of Washington, D. C., and the Committee for the Bodleian Library (Oxford).
Baldwin has contributed in the public domain as an advocate for public and private education from K-12 through university level and has a particular commitment to the teaching of science and technology in our schools. He has written in national newspapers on issues of public teacher recognition and compensation and has been active in the work of Episcopal schools nationally.
While a member of the Board of Overseers of Harvard University from 1994 to 2001, Baldwin was selected as its Vice-Chair in 2000. At Harvard, he has also served on the Visiting Committee to oversee the John F. Kennedy School of Government, the Visiting Committee to oversee the Department of Anthropology, the Visiting Committee to the Harvard Medical School, the Standing Committee to oversee Harvard College (Vice-Chair), the Standing Committee to oversee the Natural Sciences (Chair) in the College, and the Presidential Committee on Women's Studies and Women Scholars at Harvard. He currently serves as a member of Harvard's Committee to Visit the College and the Eliot House Senior Common Room. He is an internationally recognized authority and speaker on the life of King Edward VIII.
Dr. Baldwin has two sons, John Benjamin West Baldwin, a graduate of Harvard College and an investment banker in Dallas and Andrew Christian William Baldwin, a graduate of Harvard College and now an intern at Yale University. His eldest son, Alistair Edward Stewart Baldwin was an honors graduate of Harvard College, the Rice University School of Public Policy, and the Boston University School of Law and was a litigator at the firm of Hemenway and Barnes in Boston. Alistair Baldwin died in late 2009.
Dr. Baldwin is a member of St. Peter's Episcopal Church and a former vestryman and board chair at St. Thomas's Episcopal Church and School. He has served as Co-Chair of the Jewish National Tree of Life Fund.
Links of Interest:
- Albert Schweitzer Fellowship
- American Association of Rhodes Scholars
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Dartmouth Medical School
- Dr. David Blumenthal
- Dr. Donald Berwick
- Harvard University
- Jewish National Tree of Life Fund
- Magdalen College Oxford
- National Science Foundation
- New York University
- Oxford University
- Quest Diagnostics
- Robert F. Kennedy Center
- Stanford University
- Stanford University School of Medicine
- Texas Tech University System
- Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
- University of Paris (Sorbonne)
- U.S. Defense Health Board
- Yale University